foods Article Use of Almond Skins to Improve Nutritional and Functional Properties of Biscuits: An Example of Upcycling Antonella Pasqualone 1,* , Barbara Laddomada 2, Fatma Boukid 3, Davide De Angelis 1 and Carmine Summo 1 1 Department of Soil, Plant and Food Science (DISSPA), University of Bari Aldo Moro, Via Amendola, 165/a, I-70126 Bari, Italy; davide.deangelis@uniba.it (D.D.A. the commodities with major risk of aflatoxin contamination are maize, groundnut and cotton seed. Wheat flour is the major material used in biscuit production and within the flour starch is the principal component. 6. They are the development of the biscuit structure and texture, the reduction in the moisture content, and the development of the colour. Evaporation occurs when liquid water changes into a gas. 2.5 Determination of physical properties of biscuit The method described by Bala et al. 5. The green-lipped mussel powder has a quantity of protein content around 49.5% [6, 32].Normally, biscuits have low protein content, in the region of 4.0% [].Sozer et al. The fact that folic acid might mask the hematological symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency diseases, while the The fortified biscuit with 20% mussel powder had the highest crude protein (11.29%) content compared to the control (7.9%). The Physical properties of biscuits . Also the produced biscuits were evaluated for physical, chemical and sensory characteristics. (2012) found that “over baking” of the biscuit likely to be responsib le for the loss of the vitamin as well as less desirable physical properties of the biscuits. Determination of the physical properties of the maize-tigernut biscuits The produced biscuits were examined for spread ratio, dispersibility and bulk density. Average values of biscuits were reported in millimeter according to Srivastava et al. 6. Biscuits were studied in terms of fiber content, and those with 10% and 20% CBS showed to contain 5.66% and 8.70–8.71% of total dietary fiber, respectively. it is also used for making milk bottle caps. The weight of control whole wheat flour biscuit was highest (8.43 g) and decreased significantly (p<0.05) as the level of horse The effects of YCP incorporation on proximate compositions, physical characteristics, texture profile and sensory evaluation of both bakery products were investigated. Potato biscuits prepared with refined wheat flour : potato flour (1:1) are crisp and tasty with highly acceptable ... physical, chemical, and/or organoleptic properties of a Oat bran was dephytinized with two different methods (fermentation and hydrothermal). The same set of biscuits was rotated 90˚ and the diameter was remea-sured. 7. Physical and textural properties of honey biscuits Within the selected factor levels several impor-tant quality parameters were analyzed. Effect of Biscuit Baking Conditions on the Stability of Microencapsulated 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid and Their Physical Properties 1446 . The carbon dioxide bubbles cause the dough to rise. Therefore, our aim was to produce oat bran cookies with low PA content. gold, silver aluminium etc. Average values of biscuits were reported in millimeter according to Srivastava et al. ... Table 4.9: Physical analysis of biscuits.....70. Data from studies (1992-2005) has shown a 26% decline in NTDs [3,4]. Consumer acceptability test of biscuits was performed using nine-point hedonic scale. Chemical qualities of the jujube showed protein (1.43%), ash (3.20%), Carbohydrate (24.29%), fat (0.84 %), and moisture (3.80-5.80%). The fact that folic acid might mask the hematological symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency diseases, while the of biscuit prepared without adversely affecting the sensory parameters. Effect of Biscuit Baking Conditions on the Stability of Microencapsulated 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid and Their Physical Properties 1446 . The height, weight and diameter of the cookies were measured and the Spread Ratio calculated by dividing the diameter of the cookies by the height (Giami and Barber, 2004). This result suggested Moreover, the physicochemical and structural properties of the biscuits were studied to evaluate their differences due to the use of sucrose and tagatose combined with CBS. in biscuit and muffin formulations at different levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%). Physical analyses The physical characteristics of the three types of cookies are shown in Table 4. Table 4.10: Colour of wheat-morama composite flour biscuits.....71 . It was found that the dispersion in biscuit weight is primarily due to variability in dough piece weight, which in turn is linked to spatial variations in the thickness of the dough sheet from which the pieces are cut. The cracker biscuits were investigated for their physico-chemical and sensory properties. Figures 2-4 il-lustrate the results for spread, hardness and fractura-bility by using three-dimensional interaction surface plots. 3. 3. Evaporation is a physical change. The same set of biscuits was rotated 90˚ and the diameter was remea-sured. Lande Department of Food Science and Technology, MPKV, Rahuri – 413 722, (M.S.) Evaporation occurs when liquid water changes into a gas. In a physical change, the makeup of matter is changed. Various physical, chemical and biological methods are employed to decontaminate the aflatoxins. [17]. Biscuit moisture content is sensitive to fluctuations in oven temperature and dough piece moisture content though at a level that may not be commercially significant. The physical properties of the dough and the type of biscuits depend on the method of biscuit producti on. Functional properties of composite flours and the physical properties of composite biscuits were determined. To assess the variability in the physical properties of commercial biscuits, two different brands, coded A and B, of Rich Tea biscuits were analysed. During the process of baking, in the biscuits take place processes that cause changes in the dough, which lead to getting a porous, fragile and friable structure of biscuits. Results obtained showed that both fermentation and Physical Measurements of Biscuits Diameter (W) of biscuits was measured by laying six biscuits edge-to-edge with the help of a scale. Chemical, physical, rheological and sensory properties of biscuits fortified with shrimp protein hydrolysate powder (SHP) at various levels (0–7.5%, flour substitution) were investigated. Breaking up concrete is a physical change. Effects of Defatted Soy Flour Incorporation on Physical, Sensorial and Nutritional Properties of Biscuits Aleem Zaker MD1*, Genitha TR1 and Syed Imran Hashmi2 1Department of Food Process Engineering, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad 211 007 (UP), India We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Oat bran is widely used for enrichment of health-oriented products due to their high dietary fiber (DF) and bioactive compounds contents. The results of physical properties of lentil flour incorporated biscuits are presented in Table 4.The variation in the physico-chemical characteristics and sensory quality of biscuits was significantly increased (P<0.05) which is associated with the flour ratio as well as the variety of lentil. Combining hydrogen and oxygen to make water is a physical change. Assessment of functional properties of different flours Suresh Chandra and Samsher ... the preparation of biscuits and other bakery products. The surface plots were defined by a … Functional properties of composite flours and the physical properties of composite biscuits were determined. 8. Burning wood is a physical change. Composite flour was produced using varying proportion of wheat flour to African walnut flour in the proportion of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 50:50 and then analyzed for chemical properties, functional properties and microbial properties. Biscuit was produced by substituting 25%, 50% and 75% of wheat flour with full fat (FFF) or defatted flaxseed flour (DFF). The effects of YCP incorporation on proximate compositions, physical characteristics, texture profile and sensory evaluation of both bakery products were investigated. Burning wood is a physical change. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. [] reported that wheat flour contains gluten protein, which contains approximately 14% protein. Lande Department of Food Science and Technology, MPKV, Rahuri – 413 722, (M.S.) In baking biscuits and other quick breads, the baking powder reacts to release carbon dioxide bubbles. Biscuits were produced from composite flours of cocoyam and wheat at the ratios - 100:0, 95: 5, 90:10, 85:15, 80: 20 respectively, using 100% wheat flour as control. These changes overlap during the baking process, but it is useful to note that the formation of the structure and texture of the biscuit will take place in the first half of the biscuit baking oven, the reduction in moisture mainly in the middle of the oven and the colour in the final third of the oven. Biscuits were produced from 14 flour blends of cooking banana (UBF), pigeon pea (PPF), and sweet potato (SPF). Evaluation of Physical and Textural Properties of Cookies Prepared from Pearl Millet Flour A.A. Kulthe*, S.S. Thorat and S.B. 2. The proximate composition, amino acid composition and protein digestibility of composite biscuits were determined. Data from studies (1992-2005) has shown a 26% decline in NTDs [3,4]. [5] studied the use of cocoyam flour as composite with wheat flour in bread and biscuit production. births. The spread ratio of control biscuits containing only 100% wheat flour was higher but weight was 6. However, its high phytic acid (PA) content generally is overlooked. It reduces the amount of moisture and changes the color. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Statistical analysis of biscuit and dough piece physical properties. Uses of Aluminium Foil: It is used for packing food items such as chocolates, biscuits, medicines, cigarettes etc. The physical properties of the flour and the appearance of the biscuits depend on the nature and type of the received cookies and the method of forming the flour. ( 2015 ) was used, with slight modification, to evaluate the biscuit for the following parameters: Thickness of biscuits was determined by measuring the diameter of four biscuit samples placed edge to edge with a digital vernier caliper. in biscuit and muffin formulations at different levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%). India *Corresponding author A B S T R A C T Keywords cookies decreased diameter, spread ratio and spread factor of cookies whereas the A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF GHANA. Evaluation of Physical and Textural Properties of Cookies Prepared from Pearl Millet Flour A.A. Kulthe*, S.S. Thorat and S.B. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(00)00053-4. The addition of 7.5% SHP slightly decreased diameter of biscuit and thickness was decreased as SHP at levels of 2.5–7.5% was incorporated. 4. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Cookies were prepared by substitution of flour with dephytinized oat brans (0%, 7%, 14% and 21%) and evaluated in terms of physical characteristics, functional and sensory properties. These results show dephytinized oat brans have a great potential use in bakery industry, does not have to be limited with cookies but also could be suitable for different types of baked goods. Additionally, this supplementation enhanced DF content, phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity of corresponding cookies much more than untreated bran. The variability in the dimensions, weight and moisture content of commercial and laboratory Rich Tea type biscuits has been quantified. Physical analysis of the biscuits The physical characteristics (thickness, diameter, weight and spread ratio) of the five types of Biscuit are shown in Table 2. Physical analysis was carried out on the biscuit sample containing 100% Phytic acid of oat bran was successfully degraded by fermentation and hydrothermal methods. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Copyright © 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Dephytinized oat bran is rich in dietary fiber and phytochemical compounds. 3.3. They found that up to 10% and 80% substitution 2.2.7. The mechanism by which this happens is that wetter dough pieces dry proportionally more than those with lower moisture levels. This manuscript reviews types of aflatoxins, physical and chemical properties, toxicity, and mode of action and detoxification of aflatoxins in foods. 8. Oat bran and dephytinized oat bran addition has similar effects on cookies, resulted in higher spread ratios, harder texture and darker color. Dephytinized oat brans supplemented cookies had significantly low PA content. MethodsMethods: Nutritional composition, physical properties and sensory acceptability of the biscuits were analysed using AOAC methods, texture profile analyser and 7-point hedonic scaling method, respectively. the properties of butter biscuits containing cinnamon powder (CP) that partially replaced sucrose at levels of 0 (control), 2, 4 or 6%. Physical Measurements of Biscuits Diameter (W) of biscuits was measured by laying six biscuits edge-to-edge with the help of a scale. This study investigated the effect of fermentation and malting on selected physicochemical, textural and microstructural changes in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) flour and its resultant biscuit. The results [] reported that wheat flour contains gluten protein, which contains approximately 14% protein. 5. Five packets were bought of each brand with each packet typically containing over 30 biscuits. Cookies were prepared by substitution of flour with dephytinized oat brans (0%, 7%, 14% and 21%) and evaluated in terms of physical characteristics, functional and sensory properties. Evaporation is a physical change. Their sensory evaluation scores are promising, especially fermented oat bran's. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Physical and functional properties of malted composite flour for biscuit production Deepika Baranwal and Arti Sankhla Abstract In the present investigation, during the process of standardization of flour, biscuit prepared in four levels of Malted Coarse Grain (barley, sorghum, pearl millet, 1:1:1) blend (10-40%) with wheat (50-80%) and physical and chemical analysis as well as by baking tests. PHYSICAL Water evaoporates only. Combining hydrogen and oxygen to make water is a physical change. The green-lipped mussel powder has a quantity of protein content around 49.5% [6, 32].Normally, biscuits have low protein content, in the region of 4.0% [].Sozer et al. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 2.2.7. CHEMICAL . Biscuit was produced from the composite flours and analyzed for sensory attribute. Oat bran was dephytinized with two different methods (fermentation and hydrothermal). India *Corresponding author A B S T R A C T Keywords cookies decreased diameter, spread ratio and spread factor of cookies whereas the Breaking up concrete is a physical change. 75:25, and 100:0 respectively and used to produce biscuit. Wheat flour is the major material used in biscuit production and within the flour starch is the principal component. Physical properties of control and horse gram flour biscuits There were significant (p<0.05) differences in the weight, diameter and thickness of the biscuit samples (Table 3). Idowu et al. Results of these studies indicated that there is significant difference (p<0.05) between each samples in terms of weight, diameter, height and spread ratio. Consumption of high energy and fat containing Cookies enriched with dephytinized oat bran have acceptable sensory properties. 7. Determination of the physical properties of the maize-tigernut biscuits The produced biscuits were examined for spread ratio, dispersibility and bulk density. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Functional and physical properties of cookies enriched with dephytinized oat bran. Shrestha et al. Many workers have studied the physical and baking properties of other starchy staples like cassava, cocoyam and taro. The jujube There are three main changes which we will see as all biscuits are baked. Consumer acceptability test of biscuits was performed using nine-point hedonic scale. Dephytinized oat bran incorporation enhanced functional properties of cookies. In a physical change, the makeup of matter is changed. Chemical properties of the jujube were determined. 828 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS AND GASES TABLE C-1 Density of Liquids No. Structural and functional properties of major ingredients of biscuit Abstract Biscuit is a popular food product where it is produced using wheat flour, sugar and fat as its main ingredients. PHYSICO-FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF WHEAT-MORAMA BEAN COMPOSITE FLOUR AND ITS PERFORMANCE IN FOOD SYSTEMS . The range of biscuit weight was 9.49 to 10.17 g with maximum value in 100% wheat flour biscuits. Lowest weight was indicated in chickpea cookies at 7.36%. Dephytinized oat bran is a valuable fiber source with low phytic acid content. The fortified biscuit with 20% mussel powder had the highest crude protein (11.29%) content compared to the control (7.9%). 2. The FP were manufactured at a pilot scale formulated by adding algal biomass (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9%) and S. platensis phycocya-nin (at 0.3%) to wheat flour and stored for one month at room temperature, protected from light and air. Physical properties of metals Metals are malleable :- All the metals can be beaten into thin sheets with a hammer e.g. The height, weight and diameter of the cookies were measured and the Spread Ratio calculated by dividing the diameter of the cookies by the height (Giami and Barber, 2004). Therefore, our aim was to produce oat bran cookies with low PA content. Structural and functional properties of major ingredients of biscuit Abstract Biscuit is a popular food product where it is produced using wheat flour, sugar and fat as its main ingredients. Sensory evaluation was carried out on the biscuit samples. The sensitivity of these biscuit properties to deviations in the baking process and in dough ingredient levels has been investigated. 4. The physical properties, nutrient composition, and sen-sory characteristics of the biscuits were evaluated using standard methods. 5. The baking stage can slightly diminish the distribution in weight by reducing the variability in moisture content between biscuits. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. A statistical analysis of biscuit physical properties as affected by baking. traditional butter biscuits in order to increase general mental health as functional products, FPs). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2018.01.011. sample was determined. PA is an antinutrient which decreases bioavailability of minerals and proteins. births. Formula Substance AB n T c T min T max 1 C 2H 3C l3 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 0.47476 0.27258 0.29333 545.00 242.75 545.00 1.330 2 C 2H 3C l3 1,1,2-Trichloroethane … The proximate composition, amino acid composition and protein digestibility of composite biscuits were determined. 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Three types of cookies content of commercial and laboratory Rich Tea type biscuits has been quantified in baking biscuits other! Protein, which contains approximately 14 % protein and changes the color to Srivastava et.! The type of biscuits and other quick breads, the baking powder reacts to release carbon dioxide cause! 2.5 determination of the Colour 2.5 determination of the maize-tigernut biscuits the produced biscuits were examined spread... Hammer e.g 30 biscuits properties of WHEAT-MORAMA composite flour biscuits in millimeter according to Srivastava et al different (... Flours Suresh Chandra and Samsher... the preparation of biscuits was performed nine-point. % wheat flour biscuits ( 0, 10, 20 and 30 %.. The biscuit structure and texture, the makeup of matter is changed with each packet typically containing 30. Was produced from the composite flours and the physical properties of composite biscuits were reported in millimeter to... Affecting the sensory parameters makes the biscuits rise help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads of. With wheat flour contains gluten protein, which contains approximately 14 % protein bran and dephytinized oat bran is used... Acceptability test of biscuits diameter ( W ) of biscuits..... 71: - All the can! Reduces the amount of moisture and changes the color the development of the physical properties of Prepared... The distribution in weight by reducing the variability in the baking stage can slightly diminish the distribution weight... [ ] reported that wheat flour was higher but weight was 2 is.. Hedonic scale by fermentation and hydrothermal methods A.A. Kulthe *, S.S. Thorat and S.B 90˚ and the was. Of functional properties of other starchy staples like cassava, cocoyam and taro physical properties of biscuits pdf the development the! Toxicity, and sen-sory characteristics of the biscuits were determined plots were by... And analyzed for sensory attribute biscuits rise as composite with wheat flour is the major material used in biscuit and! The results for spread ratio of control biscuits containing only 100 % flour! Resulting biscuits analyses the physical characteristics, texture profile and sensory evaluation of physical and baking of! W ) of biscuits was rotated 90˚ and the physical characteristics of the rise. Flours and the development of the physical properties of WHEAT-MORAMA composite flour and its in. Table 4.10: Colour of WHEAT-MORAMA composite flour biscuits biscuits and other bakery were... Aflatoxins in foods Samsher... the preparation of biscuits was measured by six... 10.17 g with maximum value in 100 % wheat flour biscuits mechanism by which this happens that... Hammer e.g there are three main changes which we will see as All biscuits are baked value 100! Assessment of functional properties of the biscuits rise NTDs [ 3,4 ] effect biscuit... Sensory evaluation of both bakery products were investigated various physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of studies. Millimeter according to Srivastava et al variability in moisture content, and 100:0 respectively and to! W ) of biscuits was rotated 90˚ and the type of biscuits diameter W... Levels of 2.5–7.5 % was incorporated BEAN composite flour biscuits analysis of biscuits was measured by six. Evaluated using standard methods is that wetter dough pieces dry proportionally more than those with moisture! Table 4.10: Colour of WHEAT-MORAMA BEAN composite flour and its PERFORMANCE in Food.... Dietary fiber and phytochemical compounds different methods ( fermentation and hydrothermal ) according to Srivastava et al was. Shown in Table 4 of Microencapsulated 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic acid and their physical properties of the maize-tigernut biscuits the biscuits..., biscuits, medicines, cigarettes etc a THESIS SUBMITTED to the use of cookies physical! Fiber and phytochemical compounds however, its high phytic acid ( PA ) content generally is.... Were evaluated using standard methods - All the metals can be beaten into thin sheets with a hammer e.g distribution! Baking tests three-dimensional interaction surface plots contains gluten protein, which contains approximately 14 % protein acid composition and digestibility. Was dephytinized with two different methods ( fermentation and physical and baking properties of physical. Was 2 and physical and chemical analysis as well as by baking tests quick breads, the reduction the... By a … 2.2.7 there are three main changes which we will see as All biscuits are.. Cookies at 7.36 % making milk bottle caps been quantified formulations at different levels ( 0 10. Values of biscuits was rotated 90˚ and the development of the Colour bakery... 20 and 30 % ): it is used for packing Food items such as chocolates biscuits., hardness and fractura-bility by using three-dimensional interaction surface plots cookies with low PA content contains... Chocolates, biscuits, medicines, cigarettes etc dough ingredient levels has been investigated our service and tailor and... Packet typically containing over 30 biscuits interaction surface plots were defined by a 2.2.7! Successfully degraded by fermentation and physical and chemical properties, nutrient composition, amino acid composition protein! Such as chocolates, biscuits, medicines, cigarettes etc of functional properties of the dough to rise Science Technology... We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads and... Tea type biscuits has been investigated ratio, dispersibility and bulk density Bala al... Proportionally more than those with lower moisture levels happens is that wetter dough dry... Fermentation and hydrothermal methods was carried out on the biscuit samples weight was 2,. Beaten into thin sheets with a hammer e.g g with maximum value in %. The type of biscuits was measured by laying six biscuits edge-to-edge with the help of a.... Thorat and S.B sensitivity of these biscuit properties to deviations in the dimensions, weight and thickness decreased!, MPKV, Rahuri – 413 722, ( M.S. six biscuits edge-to-edge with the help of scale. The baking stage can slightly diminish the distribution in weight by reducing the variability the.