B. Of the Island Hispaniola Bartolome de Las Casas. My voice cracked as I read aloud Las Casas’ words, and I felt myself holding back tears as a roar against injustice raged within me. In 1503, the Spaniards established the encomienda (from the Spanish encomendar ‘to entrust’), a system to organize the Indian population to meet the needs of the early colonial economy. In both middle and elementary school, I read about the discovery of Christopher Columbus and the evils of both the settlers and Native Americans.   The Emperor often consulted theologians and jurists on several matters related to the Empire’s policy. ...American Literature  To pay for his service, the Spanish crown granted a conquistador, soldier, or official a piece of land and number of Indians living in a particular area. The brutal awakening portrayed by de Las Casas in his account allows us to see what really happened in the Indies and prove why Columbus and other explorers aren’t the heroes their cut out to be.   He became a doctrinero, lay teacher of catechism, and began evangelizing the indigenous people, whom the Spaniards called Indians. 1511 On August 15, Pentecost Sunday, listens to a sermon by a Dominican priest, Father Antonio de Montesinos on the text "I am a voice crying in the wilderness," denouncing Spain's treatment of the Indians. Las Casas on the Five Kings of Hispaniola On this [island of Hispaniola], we knew five principal kings who governed and ruled it, and their names were as follows: Guarionex, who ruled in the happiest part or the Vega Real, which we said above had so many excellent qualities. My immediate response to Las Casas’ account was one of sorrow, dread, and horror. Bartolomé de las Casas was born in Sevilla Spain in 1484 to a farming and merchant family – a background that proved valuable in his understanding and critique of the effects of the conquest. In 1503, the Spaniards established the encomienda (from the Spanish encomendar ‘to entrust’), a system to organize the Indian population to meet the needs of the early colonial economy. Bartolomé de Las Casas, "Of the Island of Hispaniola" (1542) Bartolome de Las Casas served as a Spanish missionary in Latin America. He descr… During his first twelve years in the New World, Las Casas participated in various expeditions of conquest in the Caribbean. When the “Christians” arrived to the Indies the Indians viewed them as people from Heaven and soon found out that they were anything but that. 1.  Grand Rapids, Mi:  William B Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1997.  Brookfield, Vt: Ashgate/Variorum, 1998, 159-178.Brian Tierney, The Idea of Natural Rights: Studies on Natural Rights, Natural Law, and Church Law 1150-1625.  The text justified theoretically following Aristotelian ideas of natural slavery the inferiority of Indians and their enslavement by the Spaniards.  The battles that were sometimes won in the debating halls of Salamanca and Madrid were nearly always lost among the hard realities of life in Mexico and Peru.” Sources consulted: Anthony Pagden, “Dispossessing the Barbarism: The Language of Spanish Thomism and the Debate over the Property Rights of the Americas” in David Armitage, ed., Theories of Empire, 1450-1800: The European Impact on World History, 1450-1800, Vol. In 1502, Bartolomé de las Casas, (1474?-1566) went to the Island of Hispaniola where he enjoyed the confidence of the Spanish governor Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo. 20. Finally, Las Casas discusses how God had brought justice to the Europeans for their diabolical acts upon the natives. The family became quite wealthy and had holdings in Hispaniola, an island in the Caribbean. 1519 Returns to Spain once... ...this article, de Las Casas makes another interesting comment about Christians' another terrific action towards Indians.  In 1514, he returned his Indian serfs to the governor of Santo Domingo, and a year later, traveled to Spain to defend the natives and plead for their better treatment. For each Christian ate as much food in one day as thirty Indians in one month. How could they be the "teachers" who declares to teach moral and religious virtues to thesse people? The proof that Sepulveda uses to support his position is the glimpse the Spaniards noted in the short time they observed the Indians. Album A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies.   This was the beginning of a very prolific writing period. After the emperor approved these new laws, Las Casas became bishop of Chipas in today’s Guatemala, where he oversaw their enforcement and the evangelization campaigns. Bartolome' de Las Casas left Spain in 1502 for the Caribbean, which was called the West Indies, where he became a hacendado of an encomienda (plantation) and a slave owner of native Americans.  Grand Rapids, Mi:  William B Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1997. These people are the most devoid of rancors, hatreds, or desire for vengeance of any people in the world. Bartolomé de Las Casas illustrates an extremely graphic and grim reality to his readers using literary methods such as characterization, imagery, amplification, authorial intrusion and the invocation of providence while trying to appeal to the sympathies of his audience about such atrocities. The amount of food the Christians consumed was unbelievable. De Las Casas came from a modest family and was well educated.  That year, they successfully ended their campaign to conquer the Emirate of Granada in the south of the Iberian Peninsula. After his failure, Las Casas decided to devote his life to religious service. If people knew the true story about what really happened as accounted by Bartolome de Las Casas then there would be less celebrating and realization that we, as people, are idolizing a false hero.  To pay for his service, the Spanish crown granted a conquistador, soldier, or official a piece of land and number of Indians living in a particular area. ... traveling to the Island of Hispaniola. Bartolomé de Las Casas was born in 1484 in Sevilla, Spain. 20. When las Casas wrote this in 1542, there were only 200 Taíno left on Hispaniola. Bartolomé de Las Casas was born in 1484 in Sevilla, Spain. Like many other Spanish missionaries who had traveled to America and experienced the brutality of the conquest, Las Casas became an advocate for the Indians and a critic of the brutal exploitation of indigenous slave labor and the lack of serious religious instruction. In 1550, Las Casas debated in Valladolid his views on the American Indians with Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda in front of the Spanish court. Some critics of Columbus note the writings of Bartolome de las Casas, a Spanish Dominican friar born in 1484 who became the first Bishop of Chiapas, Mexico and advocated for indigenous Americans. Moreover, the helpful sister was hanged as a apecial "honor" in return.  In fact, the indigenous population of Hispaniola, the island where Columbus landed, reduced from 250,000 to 15,000 in two decades due to the war and forced labor. Body: How can Christians justify themselves of their inhuman actions towards Indians? Never before, though, had I heard of the torturous, unprovoked attacks directed at the innocent. Sepulveda thought that the Indians were uneducated individuals that were uncivilized in the way they conducted their lives. The sons of nobles among us, brought up in the enjoyments of life's refinements, are no more delicate than are these Indians, even those among them who are of the lowest rank of laborers. Bartoleme de Las Casas, Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies. They are... StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes, Population history of American indigenous peoples, Thermochemistry: an Ice Calorimeter Determination of Reaction Enthalpy. There are many clues in this book which point to the exaggeration of its content. We spend so much time in our schools learning about the horrors of World War II and about how Jews were discriminated against to the point of extermination towards extinction. Their repasts are such that the food of the holy fathers in the desert can scarcely be more parsimonious, scanty, and poor. It ceased to be a hereditary grant, and the encomenderos had to set free their Indians. ...In A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, Bartolomé de Las Casas vividly describes the brutality wrought on the natives in the Americas by the Europeans primarily for the purpose of proclaiming and spreading the Christian faith.  For this reason, during his stay in Spain he conceived the Plan para la reformación de las Indias (Plan for the Reformation of the Indies). A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies (Spanish: Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias) is an account written by the Spanish Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas in 1542 (published in 1552) about the mistreatment of the indigenous peoples of the Americas in colonial times and sent to then Prince Philip II of Spain. The connection between the two families was strong: Bartolomé's father eventually interceded with the pope on the matter of securing certain rights on behalf of Columbus' son Diego, and Bartolomé de Las Casas himself edited Columbus' travel journals. Bartolome de las Casas: A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies (1542) The Americas were discovered in 1492, and the first Christian settlements established by the Spanish the following year. After taking the exiled king of India, Christians send him in a vessel to another place. c. the Spanish monarchy, by special agreement with the papacy, had extensive powers over Church activities in the Americas. Bartolomé de Las Casas was an outspoken critic of the Spanish colonial government in the Americas.Las Casas was especially critical of the system of slavery in the West Indies.In 1515–16 he developed a plan for the reformation of the Indies with the help of religious reformer Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros.The plan ended in disaster, but Las Casas did not give up.  He argued that the Indians were free subjects of the Castilian crown, and their property remained their own. Of the Island Hispaniola Lyrics. In 1542, Charles V signed the “New Laws” that reformed the encomienda in response to Las Casas and some of his supporters complain. However, Christians come back to the island with a cavalry force behind. Las Casas became an avid critic of the encomienda system. He arrived in Hispaniola as a layman then became a Dominican friar and priest. Las Casas emphasizes on three main issues throughout his account. Margaret Kohn  "Colonialism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed. Las Casas Time Line 1484 Born in Seville to Pedro de Las Casas, a small merchant wealthy enough to send his son to learn Latin in the academy at the cathedral of Seville in 1497.Many older sources give 1474 as the year of his birth. With the support of the archbishop of Toledo, Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros, is named priest-procurator of the Indies. ), at http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2010/entries/colonialism/ Other Resources: Bartolome de Las Casas at http://www.lascasas.org Benjamin Keen, The Legacy of Bartolomé de Las Casas at http://www.roebuckclasses.com/201/conquest/legacylascasaskeen.htm Simón Calle  Department of Music, Columbia University, Las Casas, Sepúlveda, and Vitoria lived during the first decades of the conquest of the Americas and consolidation of the Spanish Empire. As early as 1522 Bartolome de Las Casas worked to denounce these activities on political, economic, moral, and religious grounds by chronicling the actions of the conquistadors …   In 1527, he began to write the Historia Apologética (Apologetic History), one of his major works, which served as an introduction to his masterpiece Historia de las Indias (History of the Indies).   This settlement was located on the Gulf of Paria in the present-day Venezuela. Are Christians... ...Written Response: Bartoleme de Las Casas In 1523, he joined the Dominican order and became the prior of the Convent of Puerto De Plata. [Biographical note: Born in Seville, Spain, in 1484, Bartolome de Las Casas became a loud voice for human rights of America's indigenous population. 1512 Becomes first priest to be ordained in the New World.  Grand Rapids, Mi:  William B Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1997. He earns an encomienda for his participation in several expeditions … How could they be caretakers of souls? ...The argument of Juan Gines de Sepulveda is that of negative feedback to what was experienced in the first encounter of the Spaniards and American Indians in the Sixteenth Century.  Between 1531 and 1540, he wrote several texts attacking the encomenderos and accusing persons and institutions of the sin of oppressing the Indians. 1513 Takes part in the violent and bloody conquest of Cuba and receives Indian serfs for his efforts. The Indians acted as serfs and paid the encomendero tribute in gold, kind, or labor in exchange of protection and evangelization. Second, he explains and describes in detail how the natives were rapidly being massacred by the invading Christian Europeans. First, in almost each chapter, Las Casas writes about the luscious qualities of the land and the different indigenous peoples that inhabit them. As a result Las Casas returns his Indian serfs to the governor and the rest of his life is to be spent in defense of the Indian. He father, a merchant, sailed with Columbus on his second voyage to the "New World." 1502 Leaves Spain for Hispaniola in the West Indies with the governor, Nicolas de Ovando. As to their dress, they are generally naked, with only their pudenda covered somewhat. He earns an encomienda for his participation in several expeditions … Bartolomé de Las Casas, "Of the Island of Hispaniola" (1542) Bartolome de Las Casas served as a Spanish missionary in Latin America. Due to his service, the Spanish crown rewarded him with an encomienda (a royal land grant including native inhabitants) as it was the custom of the time to pay for the services of those Spaniards participating in the exploration of the new territories. D. Epidemics brought to the Americas by Europeans. The impressions I had about Columbus’ discovery of the New World are completely destroyed by this firsthand account of the horrible truth concerning the native people of America. Margaret Kohn  "Colonialism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta, ed., at http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2010/entries/colonialism/ Other Resources: Bartolome de Las Casas at http://www.lascasas.org Benjamin Keen, The Legacy of Bartolomé de Las Casas at http://www.roebuckclasses.com/201/conquest/legacylascasaskeen.htm Simón Calle  Department of Music, Columbia University, Columbia University in the City of New York, 208 Hamilton HallMail Code 28051130 Amsterdam AvenueNew York, NY 10027, © 2020 Columbia University | Privacy Policy | Notice of Non-Discrimination | Terms of Use | Accessibility | University Home Page, Our Commitment to Diversity, Equity and Inclusion, A Committee for the Second Century of the Core, http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2010/entries/colonialism/, http://www.roebuckclasses.com/201/conquest/legacylascasaskeen.htm, Center for Undergraduate Global Engagement, Eric H. Holder Jr. Initiative for Civil and Political Rights. 20. It is accordingly forty-nine years now since Spaniards began arriving in numbers in this part of the world. Disease was the main the cause of Native fatality and it is only mentioned when De Las Casas is describing the "delicateness" of the people.  Sepúlveda, a humanist lawyer born in 1490, was an important figure in the court of Charles V where he served as the Emperor's chaplain and his official historian. And when they cover their shoulders it is with a square cloth no more than two varas in size. Nonetheless, as Brian Tierney states:  “In the end, all the writings on behalf of the Indians did little or nothing to ameliorate their plight.  This genocide called the attention of those theologians like Vitoria and Las Casas who were concerned with the morality of the conquest. Here those Christians perpetrated their first ravages and oppressions against the native peoples. After being ordained as a priest in 1510, he worked to improve the condition of the native peoples and to end their enslavement and forced labor. Bartolomé de Las Casas, 1552 In 1502 he left for Hispaniola, the island that today contains the states of Dominican Republic and Haiti. Thesis: The brutal awakening portrayed by de Las Casas in his account allows us to see what really happened in the Indies and prove why Columbus and other explorers aren’t the heroes their cut out to be. 1516 In November returns to America as a member of a commission sent to investigate the treatment of the Indians. Brian Tierney, The Idea of Natural Rights: Studies on Natural Rights, Natural Law, and Church Law 1150-1625. Massacre in the Indies He claimed that the Indians had no ruler, and no laws, so any civilized man could legitimately appropriate them.  In other words, Sepúlveda considered the Indians to be pre-social men with no rights or property. ), at http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2010/entries/colonialism/ Simón Calle  Department of Music, Columbia University, Las Casas, Sepúlveda, and Vitoria lived during the first decades of the conquest of the Americas and consolidation of the Spanish Empire.  In fact, the indigenous population of Hispaniola, the island where Columbus landed, reduced from 250,000 to 15,000 in two decades due to the war and forced labor. He had more knowledge of the islands than many; his father had accompanied Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) on his first voyage. 2. I cannot even express in words the emotions that ran through my mind and soul as I read this terrifying report exposing the truth of our country’s beginnings. Isabel and Ferdinand’s grandson Charles was the heir to three of European dynasties and by 1519 he ruled over several territories in Central, Western, and Southern Europe, and all the Spanish Colonies in the Caribbean, America and Asia. Intro: The discovery of the “New World” is portrayed as a wonderful time by almost all Americans on Columbus Day each and every year. Bartolme De Las Casas is an interesting character. The Indians acted as serfs and paid the encomendero tribute in gold, kind, or labor in exchange of protection and evangelization. This island was inhabited by a native population known as the Tainos. It was not long when the... ...Las Casas Time Line  That year, they successfully ended their campaign to conquer the Emirate of Granada in the south of the Iberian Peninsula.  In 1547, Las Casas returned to Spain where he became an influential advisor to the emperor and the Council of the Indies until the moment of his death in 1566. And because they are so weak and complaisant, they are less able to endure heavy labor and soon die of no matter what malady. 1484 Born in Seville to Pedro de Las Casas, a small merchant wealthy enough to send his son to learn Latin in the academy at the cathedral of Seville in 1497. Bartolomé de Las Casas, a Spanish Dominican priest, wrote directly to the King of Spain hoping for new laws to prevent the brutal exploitation of Native Americans. Las Casas Time Line 1484 Born in Seville to Pedro de Las Casas, a small merchant wealthy enough to send his son to learn Latin in the academy at the cathedral of Seville in 1497.Many older sources give 1474 as the year of his birth.   The Emperor often consulted theologians and jurists on several matters related to the Empire’s policy. Las Casas, a former slave owner himself, realized... ...Bartolomé de las Casas, The Devastation of the Indies (1565) Las Casas … They are by nature the most humble, patient, and peaceable, holding no grudges, free from embroilments, neither excitable nor quarrelsome. Bartolome de Las Casas (1484–1566), author of this text. Due to the reason of not understanding the ways of the Indians Spaniards such as Sepulveda came to conclusions that were unjust to the Indians. Bartolomé de Las Casas, 1552 An implication of Las Casas' argument is that a major cause of the decline of the native population in the Americas after 1492 was. Conquistadors subjugated populations primarily to garner personal economic wealth, and Natives little understood the nature of the conquest. Brian Tierney, The Idea of Natural Rights: Studies on Natural Rights, Natural Law, and Church Law 1150-1625. In order to support his views Sepulveda turns to Aristotle's doctrine of natural slavery and agrees that those more powerful are made to be masters to rule over the weak. After the Christians made there way through the villages to the nobles they acted in a way to be considered horrific. His passion for people who at the time were seen as a sub species of humans (if even human at all) is remarkable. A king named Behechio and his sister Anacona make great services to Christians and they are beneficted from these deeply as they avoid innumerable dangers and remain alive. Bartolome de Las Casas gives another example of the real situation that is true in Indies. As soon as the Spaniards discovered the New world and realized that is was inhabited by non-Christian people that they considered to be barbarians, they began to debate the use of military force to control the new land, and the conversion of the indigenous population. They first settled the large and fertile island of Hispaniola, which boasts six hundred leagues of coastline and is surrounded by a great many other large islands, all of them, as I saw for myself, with as high a native population as anywhere on earth.  In 1502 he left for Hispaniola, the island that today contains the states of Dominican Republic and Haiti. Nonetheless, as Brian Tierney states:  “In the end, all the writings on behalf of the Indians did little or nothing to ameliorate their plight. Isabel and Ferdinand’s grandson Charles was the heir to three of European dynasties and by 1519 he ruled over several territories in Central, Western, and Southern Europe, and all the Spanish Colonies in the Caribbean, America and Asia. Born in Seville, Las Casas and his father, Pedro de las Casas, emigrated to the Caribbean in 1502. He was brought into the world of the America's through his father Pedro De Las Casas who was an encomiendo himself. Bartolomé de las Casas was a 16th-century Spanish landowner, friar, priest, and bishop, famed as a historian and social reformer. We saw that Christians acted cruelly against Indians many many times without any reasonable cause. His extensive writings, the most famous being A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies and Historia de Las Indias, chronicle the first decades of colonization of the West Indies.  In 1544, Sepúlveda wrote Democrates Alter (or, on the Just Causes for War Against the Indians).  Brookfield, Vt: Ashgate/Variorum, 1998, 159-178. First contact experiences on Hispaniola included brutal interactions between the Spanish and the Native Americans. Las Casas originally intended this account to reach the royal administration of Spain; however, it soon found its way into the hands of many international readers, especially after translation. Also, Sepulveda demonstrates through his opinion that war against the Indians is a rightful act due to the fact that the Indians are seen as lower beings. The Spaniard Bartolome de Las Casas was a Dominican monk and historian who wrote extensively about the condition of Indigenous peoples under the control of the Spanish.   He was probably the first person ordained as a priest in America, on either 1512 or 1513. When Columbus took possession of the island in 1492, he named it Insula Hispana in Latin and La Isla Española in Spanish, with both meaning "the Spanish island". Please join StudyMode to read the full document. Bartolomé de Las Casas, "Of the Island of Hispaniola" (1542) God has created all these numberless people to be quite the simplest, without malice or duplicity, most obedient, most faithful to their natural Lords, and to the Christians, whom they serve; the most For this reason they are not arrogant, embittered, or greedy. How did de las Casas come to feel about the encomienda system? As soon as the Spaniards discovered the New world and realized that is was inhabited by non-Christian people that they considered to be barbarians, they began to debate the use of military force to control the new land, and the conversion of the indigenous population. A. Another point that is being discussed by Sepulveda is that of the Indians not being in... ...An Account much abbreviated of the destruction of the Indies, Indianapolis, IN, Hackett Publishing Company INC., 2003  Brookfield, Vt: Ashgate/Variorum, 1998, 159-178. In October, Christopher Columbus discovered the New World, and a year later, the Pope Alexander VI issued a Papal Bull that granted the Spanish crown sovereignty over all the lands inhabited by non-Christians that they might continue discovering in the Atlantic. Across the Caribbean, he claimed the Spanish were responsible for the … Never before had I known how good and virtuous the natives, at least a large portion of them, were toward the settlers and in their lifestyles. A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies - Chapter 1 Hispaniola Summary & Analysis Bartolomé de Las Casas This Study Guide consists of approximately 32 pages of chapter summaries, quotes, character analysis, themes, and more - everything you need to sharpen your knowledge of A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. Never before had I felt such disgust toward people claiming to be Christians.   The work was published by his own request after his death. Many older sources give 1474 as the year of his birth. For instance at one point De Las Casas goes as far as to say that 12 million (then it changed to 13 and then again to 15 million) natives were there when the Spanish arrived and at the time he wrote Destruction of the Indies there were only 400 left, all of whom were killed by Spanish settlers. d. the … The debate, which continued in 1551, reached no firm conclusion; but the court seemed to agree with Las Casas, and demanded a better treatment for the Indians. He became a doctrinero, lay teacher of catechism, and began evangelizing the indigenous people, whom the Spaniards called Indians. Many Spaniard missionaries sent to the New World, including Las Casas, noticed and denounced the brutal exploitation of Indians by encomenderos, and their lack of commitment in evangelization. The significant point is that there were very huge amount of gold in the shipwreck and the comment made by de Las Casas points out the real condition: "Such was God's vengeance for so many terrible injustices." The Spanish missionary Bartolomé de Las Casas’s intervention to prevent the genocide of the Indian population came too late to save the Taino, although it did lead to the introduction of enslaved Africans in the early 16th century, a solution to the Spaniards’ labour problem that Las Casas had suggested. 1515 Returns to Spain to plead the Indian cause before King Ferdinand. b. Spanish colonials, following the lead of Bartolomé de Las Casas, were much less harsh toward the American natives than the Spanish government urged them to be. €” his father, a merchant, sailed with Columbus on his second voyage, and Bartolome edited travel. That sepulveda uses to support his position is the glimpse the Spaniards the Devastation of the Indies and describes detail... That sepulveda uses to support his position is the glimpse the Spaniards called Indians desert can scarcely be parsimonious... The Empire’s policy Protector of the World of the torturous, unprovoked directed! 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