2. Red algae, or Rhodophyta (/ r oʊ ˈ d ɒ f ɪ t ə / roh-DOF-it-ə, / ˌ r oʊ d ə ˈ f aɪ t ə / ROH-də-FY-tə; from Ancient Greek ῥόδον (rhodon) 'rose', and φυτόν (phyton) 'plant'), are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae. Classification of Algae conc. Sphaeropleaceae. Prasiolineae. Reproduction: There is no sexual reproduction. There are in total eleven classes in Fritsch’s classification. Cell wall:Doesn’t have a considerable cell wall, but has a flexible outer layer called pellicle or periplast. Subphylum II: Sporozoa. The other two major classes are Chlorophyceae (green algae) and Rhodophyceae (red algae). Ulotrichaceae. Because of such incorporation, the words such as Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae indicate an idea of their relationship with algae. Classification of Algae No easily definable classification system acceptable to all exists for algae because taxonomy is under constant and rapid revision at all levels following every day new genetic and ultrastructural evidence. Classification algae botany biotechnology Biocyclopedia.com. The members are grouped together as they share some common characteristics. Phylum protozoa is a large and varied group and possess a complication in its classification.. His classification of algae is mainly based upon characters of pigments, flagella and reserve food material. It was Leeuwenhoek, 1674 who first observed unicellular algae under the microscope. The Greek word for algae is ”phykos” and according to International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN), a group of algae should necessarily be incorporated by the word ”phykos”. The classification of algae into taxonomic groups is based upon the same rules that are used for the classification of land plants, but the organization of groups of algae above the order level has changed substantially since 1960. Economic importance of algae, SCP, LSF (Liquid seaweed fertilizer), Mass cultivation of algae, BGA, Algal hydrocarbon, Hydrogen production, oxidation ponds. Lee (1999, 2008 (the one given in 2008 is followed here)). Classification of algae 1. Most are aquatic and autotrophic and lack many of the distinct cell and tissue types, such as stomata , xylem and phloem , which are found in Phaeophyceae is a class of brown algae. The metabolic or assimilatory food products. Family. classification of algae by g.m smith presented by aboli vichare m.sc part - 1 Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Algae are photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. Log in. Topics covered include classification, cellular and sub-cellular organization, morphology and growth, reproduction and life cycles, evolution, phylogeny, physiology, ecology and the relationship between algae and man. Agardh (1849–1898) divided algae into six orders: Diatomaceae, Nostochineae, Confervoideae, Ulvaceae, Floriadeae and Fucoideae. Bold and Wynne (1985) recognized ten divisions of algae retaining the nomenclature given by Papenfuss (1946), except for blue-green algae. a) Chlorococcales b) Hormogonales. So there is no word like phyta (e.g. They are commonly known as brown algae, due to the presence of a golden brown xanthophyll pigment, fucoxanthin (C 40 H 54 O 6) in the chromatophores. The relationship of orders in the Phaeophyta is well expressed in a diagram by van den Hoek & Jahns (1978) which is given, in modified form, in Fig. Join now. o cell wall composition and structure. May 5, 2014 - This Pin was discovered by Cheri Dennen. Algae: Classification by Fritsch part 1(upto order) - YouTube 'Plantlet' is a small step of a big initiative that we have been planning for two years. Their photosynthetic pigments are more varied than those of plants, and their cells have features not found among plants … Flora Hibernica, Dublin Google Scholar. (2000) 4.12 Pugachev et al. The Rhodophyta also comprises one of the largest phyla of algae, containing over 7,000 currently recognized species with taxonomic revisions ongoing. Classification. Xanthophyceae (Heterokontae, Yellow-green algae), Bacillariophyceae (Diatom, Yellow or golden brown algae), Myxophyceae (Cyanophyceae, Blue-green algae), Chrysophyta (Golden and yellow green algae), Eukaryotic algae-with chloroplast surrounded only by the two membranes of the chloroplast envelope (Glaucophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta), Eukaryotic algae-with chloroplast surrounded only by one membrane of chloro­plast endoplasmic reticulum (Euglenophyta and Dinophyta), Algae which have two membranes of Chloroplast Endoplasmic Reticulum (Cryptophyta and Heterokontophyta), The metabolic or assimilatory food products. Chaetophoraceae; Family 5. Rarely one, and generally a combination of a few or more of the following characters are considered by the algal taxonomists while classifying algae: Regarding the algal classification, there are three schools of thought: (supported by Papenfuss, 1946; Bold and Wynne), the algae should be divided first into several divisions (i.e. Pigments differ in different phytas (=divisions). Chlorophyll-a is ubiquitous to all algae, and so there is definitely a common origin from a … Angiosperms are the most common plants and also the largest group of plants on earth. The membrane is two cells thick, soft and translucent and grows attached (without a stipe) to rocks by a small disc-shaped holdfast. Blue Green Algae Classification. They considered Cyanophyceae as a division and called it Cyanochloronta where as Papenfuss had included it in phylum Schizophyta as a class. Please take 5 seconds to Share. Most live in fresh water, but some are found in marine and soil habitats. Pigmentation; Storage product; Cellular organisation; Cell wall chemistry; Flagellation; Second school of thought (supported by Fritsch, 1935, 1945 and his followers), algae is itself equivalent to a division, and therefore it can only be further divided into classes (i.e. Find books Yellow-green algae or the Xanthophyceae (xanthophytes) are an important group of heterokont algae. F.E. Classification: Fritsch (1935) divided the order Volvocales into 3 suborders and 7 families. Tetrasporineae; Sub order. Tetrasporales; Order 3. Classification of Fritsch was based on the following criteria Pigmentation Types of flagella Assimilatory products Thallus structure Method of reproduction Fritsch divided algae into the following 11 classes 1.Chlorophyceae 2. He divided it into 11 classes based on pigments,reserve food materials and flagellar types. Further, we may come to realize that as long as there are three men on the earth, there will be at least two different interpretations of the facts, possibly three, and we may find that none of them is correct…, Tags Algae bold and wynne classification phycology, Culture of algae in laboratory is not only important for knowing the details of the …. of Freshwat er Algae of th e British Is les (Whitton et al., 1998b, 2003). Class 3: Piroplasmea. Ulotrichales Sub order. Greeks called the “Phycos” for seaweeds. According to him, algae were classified into following eleven classes based on s tructure and reproduction of the algae (on basis of pigmentation, reserve food and flagellation, thallus structure, modes of reproduction and life cycles). Xanthophyte chloroplasts contain the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, β-carotene, and the carotenoid diadinoxanthin. Common name: Euglenoids 2. Chlorodendrineae; Order. F.E. up to several decimetres. Microsporaceae; Family 3. He was a British biologist. Habit:Unicellular flagellates, cylindrical, ovoid to fusiform, microscopic, both heterotrophic & autotrophic organism. Laminariales – e.g. The book 'Structure and Reproduction of the Algae' describing taxonomy of algae is written by Felix Eugen Fritsch FRS. Largely marine and freshwater parasites of algae and higher plants. •The current systems of classification of algae are based on the following main criteria: o kinds of photosynthetic pigments, o type or chemical nature of photosynthetic energy storage products o photosynthetic membranes’ (thylakoids) organization and other features of the chloroplasts. Bold and M.J. Wynne (1978, 1985 (the one given in 1985 is followed here)), R.E. Some acellular organisms like viruses and viroids as well as the lichens are not included in the five kingdom system of classification. Algae is an extremely diverse group of organisms that make up the lower phylogenetic echelons of the plant kingdom. Abulais Shomrat (2015) Alternative classifications Pascher (1914) Pascher, A. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.9M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Important characteristics of Ulotrichaceae They are commonly found in aquatic environments including freshwater, marine and brackish water. Additions to taxa ot her than diatoms. The following table provides a useful scheme of the differences among the three schools of thought which may come handy while studying the three classifications together. It was F. E. Fritsch, who proposed the classification of algae that they should not be divided into phyta, i.e., divisions but only into classes. Characteristics of Bryophytes. He gave very comprehensive and authoritative account of classification of algae based on a variety of characters as pigmentation, stored food matter, habit, habitat and method of reproduction. Chlorophyceae . 2. All currently recognized algal divisions are covered, including the Cyanophyceae and the Prochlorophycota. This is the most modern classification scheme of algae. Kingdom Plantae 5. Base of classification. Fritsch FE (1935) The structure and reproduction of algae, vol I. Cambridge University Press, London Google Scholar. Brown algae are the most complex ones, wherein some species are adapted at certain depths in the seas and oceans. It is actually a website that is visioned to become a mentor of plant science students. 990 Views. The ICBN (Lanjouw, 1956) has recommended the following suffixes for the different categories of algae: He was the first phycologist who suggested a most comprehensive and authoritative classification of algae in his book ”The Structure and The Reproduction of The Algae”. Therefore they all belong to the same group. Algae | O. P. Sharma | download | Z-Library. 1.2.2 Seaweeds Ulva are thin flat green algae growing from a discoid holdfast that may reach 18 cm or more in length, though generally much less, and up to 30 cm across. The following are classes. Most live in fresh water, but some are found in marine and soil habitats. Most are autotrophic and lack many of the distinct cell and tissue types found in land plants such as stomata, xylem and phloem. Filaments in the colonies can slide back and forth against each other until the whole mass is reoriented to its light source. Habitat:They are commonly found in freshwater, especially when it is rich in organic materials, with a few marine and endosymbiotic members. Due to its diverse nature, the algal classification is also a difficult task. Discover (and save!) phyceae) and not into divisions (i.e. Biology. The Fritsch Collection - The unique Fritsch … Example: Babesia. It is commonly found in watering-troughs waters, and … Ulotrichaceae. Around 1880, algae along with fungi were grouped under Thallophyta, a division created by Eichler (1836). 1. 1914. According to these morphological and physiological differences they are classified by many people. But Smith divided it into 3 orders. Ulvaceae; Family 2 Schizomeridaceae; Order 5. Family . Classification . Prasiolaceae. Algae are photosynthetic organisms belonging to the kingdom Protista. Protococcaceae; Family 6. (1979) 4.8 Dodge in Spector (1984) 4.9 Popovský & Pfiester (1990) 4.10 Taylor in Margulis et al. Angiosperms account for 80% of all the living plants that are known! Order. Secondary School. Thank you... 10 Medicinal Plants and their Uses with Pictures, Characteristics of Phaeophyceae (Brown algae). Cylindrocapsaceae; Family 4. His classification was based on such criteria as pigmentation, types of flagella, assimilatory products, thallus structure and methods of reproduction. The account of algae dates back to ancient Chinese literature and it is a believe that along with the origin of plant sciences, the recognition of algae as a group has taken place. Again some botanists opt for the modern phylogenetic system. Microcystis is represented by two species Family. The main orders are: Ectocarpales – e.g. According to these morphological and physiological differences they are classified by many people. Phylum MOLLUSCA. Product of photosynthesis is different in different divisions. Volvocales; Family 1. Base of classification. Classification: Fritsch (1935) divided the order Ulotrichales into 3 suborders and 6 families. Volvocaceae; Order 2. phyta). Log in. Lee RE (2008) Phycology, 4th edn. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. As the following characters are common in all algae, Fritsch and his followers are disinclined to form any divisions rather considered Algae itself as a division. o the presence or absence of flagella (as well as the number and Classification of algae according to fritsch and lee - 1618332 According to Fritsch, algae can be classified into 11 classes based on various aspects such as mode of pigmentation, reserve of food material and kind of pigments.The eleven classes are: # Chlorophyceae (Green algae) # Xanthophyceae (Yellow-green algae) Algae Xanthophyceae 3. Phaeophyceae is divided into 9 orders by Fritsch. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. It is really fascinating that an apparently simple group of organisms like algae possesses such diverse nature in both morphological and physio-chemical characteristics. Most of them are found in fresh water, while a few are marine (e.g., Ulva). Fritsch proposed a classification for algae­ based on pigmentation, types of ­flagella, ­reserve food materials, thallus­ structure and ­reproduction. Kelp, any of about 30 genera of brown algae (order Laminariales) that grow as large coastal seaweeds in colder seas of both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Product of assimilation may be different but the process of assimilation is same in all. This article will be incomplete if the author doesn’t quote the words of Prescott (1969) about the complexity of classification schemes: …..ideas concerning classification systems continually vary as more and more facts are disclosed which require modifications of the previous concepts. Kingdom Protista 3. • According to Dr.F.E.Fritsch (1935,1944,1945) the algae have been divided into following eleven classes 1)Chlorophyceae 7)Chloromonadineae 2)Xanthophyceae 8)Euglenophyceae or 3)Chrysophyceae Euiglinieae 4)Bacillariophyceae 9)Phaeophyceae 5)Cryptophyceae 10)Rhodophyceae 6)Dinophyceae 11)Myxophyceae 10. eg: Euglena, Trachleomonas, Phacus, Astasia, Colasium etc 1. Fritsch’s classification: F.E.Fritsch (1935, 1945) proposed a most comprehensive and anthroritative classification in his book “structure and reproduction of algae” . Harvey WH (1836) In: Mackay JT (ed) Algae. Some schools of scientists prefer certain characters of algae while the other choose the remaining ones. in classification proposed by him and his followers. Currently in 4th year (Hons) in the Department of Botany, University of Dhaka. 1 here. Algae possess diverse characters in their pigments, nature of reserve food, nature of cilia etc. Filopodia and reticulopodia in some species. 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Are Chlorophyceae ( green algae ) and Rhodophyceae ( red algae ) book “ the structure and reproduction of plant... - this Pin was discovered by Cheri Dennen genus of filamentous cyanobacterium which named! Called it Cyanochloronta where as Papenfuss had included it in phylum Schizophyta as a division and divided it 11... Galatheae it was Leeuwenhoek, 1674 who first observed unicellular algae under microscope... Fascinating that an apparently simple group of plants on earth. ) classified many... Coast of Costa Rica by Hyman ( 1940 ), Hickman ( 1961 ) and Storer 1965. ( 1957 - upto order level as proposed by bold and M.J. Wynne (,... Other until the whole mass is reoriented to its diverse nature, the algal is.